Cultural variance in the metaphorical extension of body part names

The study examines the cultural embedding of the conceptualization of the human body in a cultural-cognitive linguistic framework. Body parts, organs, body fluids serve as the bases for many metaphorical expressions, which are rooted in physiological experience on the one hand and culturally and historically embedded on the other. The cultural conceptualization of the body can thus be understood as a process at the intersection of physiological experience, cognition, culture, and language. The questions of the study are as follows: (1) What is the role of culture in the figurative (metaphoric or metonymical) use of names of body parts? (2) Which conceptual domains are dominantly utilized in the metaphoric expressions? The paper provides an overview of the main directions of the metaphorical extension of names of body parts through examples from Hungarian and results of research conducted in several other languages. These directions include the domains of emotions, cognition, interpersonalrelations, culturalvalues, and issues of spatial representation and grammaticalization.

Keywords: body part, conceptualization, culture, embodiment, metaphor.

Baranyiné Kóczy Judit
Széchenyi István Egyetem


Metapragmatic reflections on text organisation in science texts

The study interprets technical texts as specialized texts of science, with an emphasis on knowledge building and the way it is based on a combination of cognitive semantics and pragmatics. It also discusses ways in which knowledge is shared, a process essentially characterised by a reflexive attitude to sharing. It prioritises the metacomponent of texts that can be considered metadiscourses and examines the possibilities of metapragmatic reflections based on their direction. Among all these options, it focuses on the ones that help to organize the text. Qualitative analysis is offered of the language tools that implement the operation of discourse deixis and the functioning of discourse markers.

Keywords: texts of science, metadiscourse, metapragmatic reflections for text organization, discourse deixis, discourse markers.

Csontos Nóra
Károli Gáspár Református Egyetem


The names for the Romanians in Gesta Hungarorum and what surrounds them

The three names for Vlachs (plur. Blachii, Blasii, Blaci) used by Anonymus (the anonymous notary of King Béla III), by removing the Latin endings, are actually the ethnonyms Blach (not Blachi), Blas (not Blasi) and Blac. None of them is a Hungarian language form (>oláh), and none of them can be directly related to the Slavic form, vlach (plur. vlasi > olasz). The author of the Gesta Hungarorum, who acted in official affairs not only when he was a notary but also in later times, could use his information in writing his chronicle. Anonymus refers to the lord of Transylvania, Gelou, as the prince of the Vlachs (dux Blacorum), which is in harmony with the fact that the form Blaci was used to denote the Vlachs of southern Transylvania in the charters of King Andrew II. Considering that the Latin literacy of Hungary was influenced by the papal chancellery, it is not surprising that the phrase Bulgarii et Blachii was modelled on the terms used in the papal chancellery, especially in the letters of Pope Innocent III, in which Bulgarians and Vlachs appear together (Bulgaria et Blachia, Bulgarorum et Blachorum, etc.). Anonymus borrowed the phrase Cumanorum et Bulgarorum atque Blacorum from a circular letter of the Latin emperor Henry of Flanders, which was also sent to the court of King Andrew II in 1213. The name Blas, which corresponds to the name used in French writings on the Fourth Crusade to denote Balkan Vlachs, was used for the Transylvanian Vlachs by Anonymus, who was in contact with the Walloon and French-speaking settlers in Hungary. The chronicler probably drew the three names in question from the sources of the first two decades of the 13th century.

Keywords: Gesta Hungarorum, Romanians, ethnonyms, xenonyms, vlach, oláh, olasz.

Senga Toru


Once more on the word feze in the Funeral Sermon

The study gives a summary of a multilateral argumentation based on which the author assumes that the word fe?e in the Funeral Semon should be interpreted as vésze ‘its danger, its doom’ and occurs there as a result of interference. The paper is a reply to a criticism which, in a simplifying fashion, rejected such an interpretation in Magyar Nyelv 2020/2 (see Hegedus 2020).

Keywords: Funeral Sermon, error typology, interference, German contacts.

Haader Lea


Developments of dialect attitudes of ethnic Hungarian students in Subcarpathia based on a repeated questionnaire survey

Native language education has a prominent role in shaping language awareness. In Subcarpathia, the native language has been taught in ethnic Hungarian schools with an additive attitude since 2005. In this study, based on two questionnaire surveys (2008 and 2018, respectively), I wish to present data concerning whether any changes have taken place since the native language education reform concerning the relationship of ethnic Hungarian students in Subcarpathia towards language dialects. According to statistical data and the opinions expressed, the young people asked in 2018 expressed their views in a more aware, positive, approving manner about non-standard variants than the participants of the 2008 survey. These changes are clearly due to the additive attitude having gained ground and the secondary school textbooks created with this attitude.

Keywords: language attitude, additive attitude, students in Subcarpathia, repeated survey.

Dudics Lakatos Katalin
II. Rákóczi Ferenc Kárpátaljai Magyar Főiskola