On German dialectology in Hungary: Research trends and results
This paper gives an overview of research on German dialects conducted over the past fifty years in this country, and presents some of the results achieved so far. It introduces the projects of the Institute of Germanic Studies of Eötvös Loránd University (Ungarndeutscher Sprachatlas – UDSA.; Wörterbuch der ungarndeutschen Mundarten – WUM.; Tonarchiv der ungarndeutschen Mundarten), as well as the theoretical and methodological innovations in the study of dialectology and sociolinguistics. German dialect islands in Hungary have to face language loss (Sprachverlust) by the early 21st century, even though communication in the local dialect can still be studied in certain generations of speakers. New trends in dialectology and sociolinguistics (communicative, interactive, and perceptual dialectology) now occupy the focus of interest, and special attention is devoted to the socio-cultural environment of speakers, the producers of linguistic utterances. In the study of German dialects in Hungary, we can speak of a speaker-centred dialectological-sociolinguistic paradigm shift.
Keywords: German dialects in Hungary, language atlas, phonetic transcription, pragmatic turn, paradigm shift in German dialectology.
Eötvös Loránd Tudományegyetem
Computer and author dictionary – with special regard to the author dictionary on Attila József’s oeuvre in hand
The two most important predecessors of the genre of the author dictionary are concordances and glossaries – from the ancient world. It was in the 19th and 20th centuries (in Hungary chiefly from the 1950’s) that the modern author dictionary came into existence, with backgrounds from historical-explanatory dictionaries, on a corpus linguistic basis. In parallel with this, from the 1960’s, computational linguistics developed, and this fact afforded remarkable possibilities to producing diverse dictionaries, close-structured vocabularies, and concordances. Such works – mainly based on earlier literary monuments – were compiled above all in Debrecen. Nowadays, language technology tools enable and increasingly support the automatic (or at least semi-automatic) way of the dictionary compilation. Because of this, lexicographers need to rethink and redefine their duties. The main part of the study reports on such an effort, and shows – considering both the entries and the appendices – the language technology solutions applied in the author dictionary on Attila József’s oeuvre.
Keywords: lexicography, author dictionary, computational linguistics, automatic and semiautomatic text processing, an author dictionary on Attila József’s oeuvre.
MTA Nyelvtudományi Intézet