The purpose of the present paper is to present a
cross-section of Hungarian poetry in English translation
over a period of time, and to investigate through the
means of a bibliography whether the poetic output of
the Hungarian nation, defined for the purposes of this
paper as a linguistic rather than a political entity,
has made a presence in the international literary mainstream.
in their native country are set apart from their neighbors,
all of whom are
of Indo-European Latin, German or Slavonic) languages,
by their isolated Finno-Ugrian tongue (Finnish and Estonian
are the major related languages). Non-literary works
of art e.g. the music of Béla Bartók,
the photographs of André Kertész, the
paintings of László Moholy-Nagy, the designs
of Marcel Breuer, to name only a few which are
not subject to limitations of access imposed by language,
enjoy a wide reputation and have earned international
recognition for their Hungarian-born creators. However,
Hungarian literature can reach non-native readers only
by means of translation.
Thus the bibliographic family of the work of leading
Hungarian poets generally contains numerous derivations,
typically translations into various foreign languages,
some of which include the original text, while others
contain only the derived text.
Rather than charting the comprehensive bibliography
of the work of a few selected writers, my aim was
to demonstrate the wealth and variety of both the original
literature and its derivative forms over a given period
genre. The focus of the
present bibliography is a single literary genre genre,
poetry. I also included a small and by no means comprehensive
section on criticism and interpretation.
personal preferences aside, it makes sense in the context
of Hungarian literature to focus research on poetry
alone, as it has assumed the role of leading literary
genre from the earliest period of vernacular literature.
In a country that suffered under oppression by foreign
powers for most of its history between the 16th
and 20th centuries, it became the mission
of poets to serve as the living conscience of their
people. William Jay Smith in his introduction
to Charon's Ferry quotes Miklós Vajda
on the subject:
"Poetry, which cannot be shelled like a city, or
whitewashed like murals, crushed like sculpture, closed
like theaters, or even banned and censored as easily
as novels and journals, can spread and be influential
even without print or manuscript. And so it dominated
the literature of a people that had to live under difficult
conditions, luring the best talents and forcing them
to lead dangerous lives and produce extraordinary achievements."
who read poetry for lyrical expression, for reflections
of the personal and the intimate might be surprised
to find that in most cases Hungarian poetry is imbued
with a strong sense of social and political commitment,
an almost missionary zeal, a prophetic ardor on the
part of the poets.
According to György Petri, to write political poetry
is a moral obligation, because [under Communism]
there was no normal canalization for the expression
of political opinion.
Endre Ady, a leading turn-of-the-century poet often
used language reminiscent of the Old Testament and assumed
the role of the prophet Jeremiah. The greatest poets,
e.g. Attila József or Miklós Radnóti,
managed to achieve a unique synthesis of the personal
and the political, of lyrical expression and social
content. Józsefs On the Edge of the
City or My Country (see no. 14) present a
social panorama reminiscent of the great 19th
century novels, while Radnótis I Know
Not What (see no. 34) is a moving testimony of commitment
to the motherland by a poet of Jewish descent rejected
and soon to be killed by the same country.
Space. The term Hungarian poetry sounds simple enough, yet matters became
somewhat complicated when it came to works created outside
the countrys borders. I included all work originally
written in the Hungarian language and then translated
into English, irrespective of the authors country
of residence, and I did not create separate categories
for poets living in different countries. From a
literary perspective, this decision served well Sándor
Kányádi, an ethnic Hungarian poet living
in Romania whose work can easily be placed alongside
the mainstream Hungarian tradition, but it seemed somewhat
arbitrary in the case of Canadian poets of Hungarian
descent, who are less easily classified along the same
Time. Defining a meaningful chronological sequence proved a challenging and ultimately
somewhat frustrating experience. I wanted to focus
my research on publications of the recent years,
and following Dr. Richard Smiraglias suggestion I chose 1989 - the historic year when Soviet
dominance ended and the socialist system of the
previous 40 years collapsed - as my starting point.
This seemed reasonable enough for various reasons: first
of all, the year marked a turning-point for certain
poets who were not allowed to publish in the preceding
period (e.g. György Petri in the early 80s, or
János Pilinszky between 1949 and 1959), and second,
the state-subsidized system of book publishing in Hungary
collapsed together with the socialist state, making
way for small private publishers. In the end I found
that from the perspective of translations none of these
factors made a significant difference; rather, a continuing,
steady expansion, an extremely fruitful collaboration
between Hungarian and English translators, a parallel
growth in publications both in Hungary and abroad can
be observed from the early to mid-seventies to the present
day. Many of the poems considered here had been previously
published in literary reviews; the translation copyrights
often go back 5, 8 10 years. It seems that in literature
and culture, 1989 was the culminating event of a thaw
that started at least 10-15 years earlier, and that
manifested itself in cultural exchanges, Hungarian writers
traveling abroad on scholarships or as visiting professors
(e.g. Ottó Orbáns The Journey
of Barbarus grew out of his year of traveling across
the US), and English and American poets (Bruce Berlind,
William Jay Smith) spending extended periods of time
in Hungary as guests of the Hungarian PEN Club or on
various fellowships. Even those Hungarian translators
and scholars who fled the country after the failed 1956
uprising for political reasons were welcomed back with
open arms. In this respect, cultural policy was in the
forefront of the general political thaw. On the Hungarian
side, the state-sponsored English-language social
and literary review The New Hungarian Quarterly,
used in some ways as an image-making propaganda tool
by the state but at the same time maintaining very high
literary standards, the less politicized multilingual
poetry review Arion published in the 70s and
80s, the Hungarian PEN Club and the foreign-language
publisher Corvina played a prominent role in fostering
cultural relations and promoting translations. The 90s
saw the emergence of new foreign-language publishing
houses alongside Corvina (the bilingual series of the
publisher Maecenas is worth mentioning). Some major
retrospective anthologies were published in this decade,
again, mostly as a result of international cooperation,
and a few new translators appeared on the scene,
among them the exceptionally talented Hungarian-born
British translator Peter Zollman.
of description. In
the present paper I only considered poems collected
in monographs; I
did not examine individual poems published in poetry
reviews, eliminating this way The New Hungarian Quarterly, published in Hungary and now available online,
as well as Modern Poetry in Translation. I felt justified in my decision by the fact that
most poems originally published in journals eventually
made it into anthologies.
Word about Translators and Translations
Lyric poetry, the chief asset of Hungarian
literature, is almost untranslatable. This is all the
more distressing, because the composite character of
Hungarian literature found its real expression in
a multicolored lyric poetry.
This sentiment is echoed many times over in the introductory
essays of the volumes included here. At the same time, many translators happily face the challenge, proven
by the fact that some of the poems appear in a variety
of Hungarian poetry fall into two main groups: bilingual
translators (George Szirtes, George Gömöri,
Thomas Kabdebo, John Bátki, Péter Zollman),
and poets with no or very basic knowledge of Hungarian
(Edwin Morgan, Ted Hughes, William Jay Smith) who work
from a rough, verbatim translation prepared
by their Hungarian counterparts.
of the former group are usually ethnic Hungarians who
fled the country for political reasons, mostly in the
aftermath of the 1956 uprising. Some of them became
poets in their own right and published their original
work in English. This created certain complications
from a bibliographical perspective. George Szirtes,
a Hungarian-born British poet and one of the most prolific
translators is a case in the matter. I included here
two volumes of his selected poetry, Bridge Passages and Blind Field (see nos. 39 and 40),
both of which contain a few translations from the Hungarian
along with the poets original work in English,
but I omitted his Selected Poems (1996) or The
Budapest File, even though the author refers to
the latter collection in his preface as his Hungarian
poems which look to a phantasmal Budapest as their
because they were written exclusively in English.
In the case of translators not familiar with the Hungarian
language, collaborative efforts are not uncommon. Some
translators work in pairs, as e.g. Zsuzsanna Ozsvath
and Frederick Turner, or George Gömöri and
George Wilmer; in these instances the translations are
often credited as joint efforts.
Translators have different concepts about how to
best convey the intellectual content of the original
work. Some are anxious to follow the original as closely
as possible. (Wherever possible, I tried to
follow the syllable count and rhyme scheme of Józsefs
lines, states John Bátki,
a champion of literary, word-by-word translation).
Others try to recreate or evoke the original form -
at times to the detriment of the contents. (Kosztolányis Ilona rendered by Zollman as Melanie is
a masterpiece of formal virtuosity).
The relationship between the original and the derivative
work is beautifully summarized by Peter Denman in his
foreword to Poems and Fragments by Attila József:
One of the pleasures of reading poetry in translation
lies in observing the creative frictions and correspondences
between a source text and a translating poet. The original
source - what a 'muse poet' would term 'inspiration'
- is already verbalised, set down in the words of another
language; this is now the starting point for a new poem.
Translations thus enable us to see a poetry in a double
vision; we look back through the finished translation
to the begetting work, but we also see something of
the distance travelled in making the translation. The
distance between the original and the version varies.
A version may swerve off into the gravity field of the
translator and the receiving culture, or it may stay
close to the originating sensibility, attempting to
find correspondences for the source text.
a fascinating subject, it is not the purpose of this
paper to compare and evaluate different translations;
indeed, I refrained from commenting on the quality of
translations in my annotations. Predictably, the
volumes I examined varied in quality of translation,
ranging from the work of enthusiastic amateurs through
the solid if somewhat unimaginative versions by literary
scholars, who tend to approach the original text with
humility and a commitment to verbatim faithfulness,
to outstanding renderings by major poets (Edwin Morgan,
William Jay Smith or Ted Hughes), whose English version
is comparable to the original in quality. It has to
be stated that in most cases the translated poems reflect
thorough scholarship and collaborative efforts by the
word-by-word translator, the translator and the editor.
It is worth quoting here from Ádám Makkai's
introduction to In Quest of the 'Miracle Stag,'
describing how in the early 60s Ladislas Gara in France
invented what came to be known as the Gara
Method of Translation:
The Editor, helped by
a team of volunteer co-editors, prepares a word-for-word,
indeed morpheme for-morpheme 'Pidgin-French' (or in
our case, 'Pidgin-English') translation to help the
native poet-translators appreciate the grammatical structure
of the text at hand. This is accompanied by a free prose
translation in idiomatic Target Language diction without
any regard for the rhyme and meter of the original piece.
Then, in order to help the translators appreciate the
sound of the original, the editors create a series of
mock stanzas in the Target Language - this time without
regard for the meaning of the original - solely in order
to suggest a rhythmic and rhyming pattern that may be
In order to make the package complete, the editor and
his colleagues should also add a tape-recorded reading
of the poem in the original Source Language (Hungarian
in our case) in educated and clear poetic diction.
I arranged the entries into four sections: single-author
volumes; anthologies of Hungarian poetry; general anthologies
of poetry featuring Hungarian poems; and finally, secondary
sources on the monographic level (biographies, criticism
and interpretation). Within the sections the arrangement
is by author-date.
I numbered the entries consecutively. I marked by an
asterisk those entries that I could not physically examine
because they were not available in libraries in the
New York area.
A few of the volumes I examined were bilingual; the
majority contained English language text only. I always
indicated the presence of bilingual texts in the annotations.
In the case of the titles I was able to physically examine,
I tried to include the number of poems and list all
the translators in the annotations, except for some
Bari, Károly. Winter Diary: Poems. Edited
by Dezsö Benedek. Translated by Dezsö Benedek,
Endre Farkas and Laura Schiff. San Francisco: Mercury
from the work of the Hungarian poet, born in 1952. Contains
Csoóri, Sándor. Selected Poems of Sándor
Csoóri. Translated by Len Roberts. [Port
Townsend]: Copper Canyon Press, 1992.
poems by Csoóri, born in 1930, presented in reverse
chronological order and arranged into three sections
(1982-, 1973-1982, and 1962-1973. With an introduction
by the translator. Roberts places Csoóri in the
populist-nationalist literary tradition called
here somewhat awkwardly fate-literature,
and calls him one of the most prominent representatives
of the post-war school of poets along with Ferenc Juhász
and László Nagy. It was this group that
continued the tradition of Sándor Petöfi,
Endre Ady and Gyula Illyés. Roberts also stresses
the poets commitment to individual responsibility
and traditional folk culture, stating that he successfully
linked the rural and urban traditions in his work.
Füst, Milán. 25 Poems. 25 vers. Translated
by István Tótfalusi. Budapest: Maecenas,
bilingual selection from the poems of Hungarian novelist,
playwright and poet Milán Füst (1888-1967).
With an afterword by István Tótfalusi,
Gergely, Ágnes. Requiem for a Sunbird: Forty
Poems. Translated by Bruce Berlind et al. Budapest:
from the work of the poet, born in 1933.
Gömöri, George. My Manifold City: Poems. Translated from the Hungarian by Clive Wilmer and
the author. Cambridge: The Alba Press, 1996.
selection of thirty-one poems, written in Hungarian
by Gömöri between 1958 and 1995.
*6. Határ, Victor. The Right to Sanity: A Victor
Hatar Reader. Translated by George F. Cushing. Budapest:
from the work of the émigré writer, born
Illyés, Gyula. What You Have Almost Forgotten:
Selected Poems by Gyula Illyés. Edited and
with an introduction by William Jay Smith. Budapest:
Kortárs Kiadó; Willimantic, CT.: Curbstone
poems by Illyés (1902-1983) rendered into
English by nineteen translators. In the introduction
Smith refers to Illyés as a lyric realist, and
compares him to composer Béla Bartók,
as they both drew their deepest inspiration from folk
8. ---. Charon's Ferry: Fifty Poems. Translated from
the Hungarian and with an introduction by Bruce Berlind.
Writings from an Unbound Europe. Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern
University Press, 2000.
in his introduction refers to Illyés as the
conscience of his people, and states that Illyés
was a poet of the people in a sense unknown in
the West. Sandburg and Whitman are mentioned as
possible parallels. According to Berlind, Illyés's
poems are rooted in cultural values, incorporate
cultural motifs, and have behind them the weight of
Hungarian history, particularly its history of suppressions
and survivals. The result is lyric, ostensibly personal, poetry which, however, resonates
in a political way (Introduction).
---. One Sentence on Tyranny. Translated by Károly
Nagy and Pál Tábori. [New Jersey?]: K.N.,
translation of Illyés's famous poem written in
1950 and first published during the 1956 uprising.
10. József, Attila. Fragments. Translated by Edwin
Morgan. Morning Star Folio, no. 3/1. Edinburgh: Morning
Star Publications, 1992.
examined copy is no. 187 of a limited edition of 300
of Józsefs fragments (i.e. his short, epigrammatic
poems) in Morgans translation. The English version
is written out in hand and illustrated by John Byrne.
---. A for Attila: An ABC of Poems by Attila József.
Attilával kezdjük: József Attila
versek ABC-sorrendben. Selected and translated by
Thomas Kabdebo. Budapest: M. Felsöoktatás,
bilingual edition of poems by Attila József,
published by a Hungarian college textbook publisher.
---. Winter Night: Selected Poems of Attila József. Field Translation Series, vol. 23. Translated from
the Hungarian and introduced by John Bátki. Oberlin,
OH. : Oberlin College Press, 1997.
poems by József (1905-1937), arranged chronologically,
as well as a translation of the Curriculum Vitae, written in prose shortly before the poet's death.
In his introduction Bátki compares József
to Kerouac (both poets are preoccupied with the
pain and sadness of existence, both are ever mindful
of emptiness, and links József's 1933 poem
entitled Winter Night to a quote from Kerouac's The Town and the City, expressing a very similar
sentiment to József's poem: Your winter
all merciless and hopeless, the one that
kills you in the end), and to Allen Ginsberg,
drawing some line-by-line parallels between József's
and Ginsberg's poems. With regard to his views on translating,
Bátki states: My versions, I trust, err
on the side of overfaithfulness to the literal meaning
and form of the originals. A short chronology
of József's life is included.
---. After Attila: Fragments after Attila József
and Postcards from Budapest. Translated by Michael
Murphy. Beeston, Nottingham: Shoestring Press, 1998.
mixture of Murphys translations from József
and his original poems.
---. The Iron-Blue Vault: Selected Poems. Translated
by Zsuzsanna Ozsváth and Frederick Turner. Newcastle
upon Tyne: Bloodaxe Books, 1999.
poems presented in chronological order, in collaborative
translation by Hungarian-American scholar Zsuzsanna
Ozsváth and American poet Frederick Turner. With
two essays: Sun-bedazzled, Dream-afflicted:
The Search for Attila József by Zsuzsanna
Ozsváth, and The Ars Poetica of Attila
József, by Frederick Turner. Ozsváths
lengthy essay (over 30 pages, complete with photos)
discusses the socio-cultural background of József's
art, and offers an analysis close to the traditional
Marxist narrative of Józsefs life against
the historic context of Hungary drifting towards Nazism
in the 30s, while Turners similarly detailed essay
discusses the philosophical underpinnings of József's
poetry on a popular level.
---. Perched on Nothing's Branch: Selected Poetry
of Attila József. Terra Incognita Series,
vol. 6. 5th, rev. ed. Translated by
Peter Hargitai. Buffalo, NY.: White Pine Press, 1999.
poems (as well as the prose Curriculum Vitae)
selected by the translator, reflecting his interest
in the personal and psychological aspects of Józsefs
poetry (none of the great socially motivated or philosophically
oriented poems are included; also absent are the later
love poems), presented in chronological order, following
Attila József's journey from the adolescent ebullience
through his piercing landscapes of despair and
renewal, toward the ultimate disillusionment (Preface
to the Fifth Edition). With a preface by Peter Hargitai
and a foreword by Maxine Kumin. In her foreword Kumin
examines Józsefs poetry in light of his
tragic life and compares him to suicide poets
Sylvia Plath, Hart Crane, Anne Sexton, John Berryman
and Paul Celan, defying the notion of appreciating József
as a politically committed poet. Hargitai, who is referred
to in the publisher's blurb as a free translator
in the tradition of Ezra Pound's translations from the
Chinese, reflecting on his translating techniques,
states: I have allowed myself the freedom to sacrifice,
at times, mirror-image fidelity for the sake of creating
a better poem in English.
16. ---. Poems and Fragments. Edited by Thomas Kabdebo.
Translated by John Bátki et al. Budapest: Argumentum;
Maynooth: Cardinal Press, 1999.
sixty-two poems by József (1905-1937) to commemorate
the 62nd anniversary of the poet's death,
and thirty-eight fragments. The English versions are
the work of twenty-nine translators. Editor and translator
Thomas Kabdebo, a József scholar and author of
a biography of the poet who also wrote the introduction,
decided to assemble in an anthology the best English
translation of József's poetry from all available
sources (Introduction), drawing from seven
published and two unpublished collections as well as
from some twenty-odd journals, in addition to his own
translations, and induced a few Irish poets to tackle
József's previously untranslated poetry. The
section of the finished poems, in reverse chronological
order, is followed by the fragments. Peter Denman in
his foreword places József's work in a broad
international context and offers some succinct notes
on translation in general, while an essay by Hungarian
literary scholar Miklós Szabolcsi contains the
essayist's personal reminiscences about the poet.
---. Attila József: Sixty Poems. Translated
by Edwin Morgan. Glasgow: Mariscat Press, 2001.
compact volume, with a short (page-long) foreword by
the translator, presenting the more meditative, personal
aspect of József's poetry.
Kányádi, Sándor. 45 Poems. 45
vers. Translated from the Hungarian by István
Tótfalusi. Budapest: Maecenas, 1999.
bilingual collection of poems by the ethnic Hungarian
poet (b. 1929) living in Transylvania, Romania, with
parallel texts in English and Hungarian.
---. There is A Land: Selected Poems. Selected
and translated by Peter Zollman. Budapest: Corvina,
collection of forty-three poems. With a preface by George
Szirtes, biographical notes, translator's notes and
a list of Hungarian titles. Both Szirtes and the translator
touch on the question of writing poetry in a language
spoken by an ethnic minority group of a particular country
(in this case, Romania), stressing at the same time
Kányádi's reconciliatory stance. The
danger for Kányádi is less that he should
be engulfed in a terrible civil war but that his language
and culture may disappear. He is not in any sense a
combatively patriotic poet, but he is aware
of the dangers of forced extinction. It is this danger
that animates the majority of the poems in the book
20. ---. Dancing Embers. Translated and selected
by Paul Sohar. Prague: Twisted Spoon Press, 2002.
and five poems in eight sections: Vertical Horses (1963-1968), Black-and Red Verses (1965-1972), Poems about Poetry (1974-1977), All Souls
Day in Vienna (1976), Unadorned Songs (1979-1985), Space-Crossing Gate (1985-1988), There are
Regions (1980-1992) and Late Poems (1990-2000).
With a foreword by Katherine McNamara, notes by the
translator, and biographical notes on the author and
the translator. McNamara in her essay searches for meaning
that the foreign readers can grasp beyond the historical
references and cultural allusions, and finds it in the
deep, grinding sorrow permeating many of
the poems. She points out the Lutheran motifs, and the
way the poet employs the subversive irony of art
in magnificent, hopeless defense against a God
or an earthly ruler by whom no absolution is
Kosztolányi, Dezsö. Dezsö Kosztolányi:
36 Poems: From the Hungarian by Peter Zollman. Kosztolányi
Dezsö: 36 vers: angolra fordította Peter
Zollman. Budapest: Maecenas, 2000.
bilingual collection of poems with parallel texts in
Hungarian and English, selected by Hungarian-born British
translator Peter Zollman, with an afterword by István
Tótfalusi. The poems are arranged chronologically
from 1905 to 1936, representing all major periods in
the oeuvre of Dezsö Kosztolányi (1885-1936),
a poet and novelist affiliated with the prominent artists
group centered around the literary review Nyugat
Mezey, Katalin. Again and Again: Poems. Újra
meg újra: versek. Translated by Nicholas
Kolumban. Budapest: Remetei Kéziratok, 1995.
bilingual volume with parallel texts selected from the
poetry of Mezey (b. 1943).
Oravecz, Imre. When You Became She. Translated
from the Hungarian and introduced by Bruce Berlind.
Riverside, CA.: Xenos Books, 1994.
selection from the work of the poet, born in 1943.
Orbán, Ottó. The Blood of the Walsungs:
Selected Poems. Edited and introduced by George
Szirtes. Budapest: Corvina; Newcastle upon Tyne: Bloodaxe
poems by Orbán (b. 1936) are presented in translations
by George Szirtes (38), László T. András
and William Jay Smith (3), László Baránszky
and Marc Nasdor (1), John Bátki (6), Alan Dixon
(1), Gerard Gorman (1), Jascha Kessler (1), Jascha Kessler
and Maria Körösy (4), Nicholas Columban (5),
Edwin Morgan (6), Eric Mottram (1) and Timea K. Szell
(1). Szirtess introduction provides biographical
information and puts Hungarys own beat poet
into literary context.
---. The Journey of Barbarus. Translated and
introduced by Bruce Berlind. Pueblo, Co.: Passeggiata
poems of Orbán are presented in English translation,
divided into three parts: Travel Documents, The Journey, and a concluding section of seventeen poems which
appear with parallel texts in Hungarian. The collection
(referred to in the introduction as Orbáns
American poems) grew out of the poets
extended stay in the U.S. in 1987 as a visiting professor
in Minnesota. Barbarus, standing for the poets
persona, reports on his travels crisscrossing the country;
his reflections are colored by his experiences of growing
up in Central Europe in the shadow of the Holocaust.
Orbán writes mostly in free verse; Berlind in
his introduction compares him to Lowell, whose poetry
Orbán translated into Hungarian. With a bibliography.
---. Our Bearing at Sea: A Novel in Poems. Translated
by Jascha Kessler with Maria Körösy. New York:
work is an autobiography, written in prose poems,
divided into thematic groups. Altogether, and upon reflection,
it seems a montage and mosaic of the life of the poet
from childhood on, remembered from the Siege of Budapest
by the Soviet armies towards the last year of World
War II, up through the various regimes until 1988 or
so. It is both surreally grotesque and warm, sardonic
on the madness of erotic life and politics during the
horrible decades that this Central European country
*27. Parti Nagy, Lajos. Europink. Versek. Gedichte.
Poems. Poèmes. Pécs: Jelenkor; Budapest:
selection from the poetry of Parti Nagy (b. 1953), including
the Hungarian text and translations in German, English
and French. English translation by Kinga Dornacher and
Petöfi, Sándor. John the Valiant: A Bilingual
Edition. 2nd ed. Translated into English
by John Ridland. Budapest: Corvina, 2001.
bilingual edition of the 1844 verse tale - sometimes
called a folk epic or popular epic (Introduction) - by the most popular 19th-century
Hungarian poet. With a foreword by George Szirtes and
an introduction by the translator. Illustrated by Peter
Petri, György. Night Song of the Personal Shadow:
Selected Poems. Translated by Clive Wilmer and George
Gömöri. Newcastle upon Tyne: Bloodaxe Books,
collection of forty-four poems by Petri (1943-2000)
spanning the years 1971 to 1989, presented here in collaborative
translations by Wilmer and Gömöri, with an
introduction by Wilmer. Petri grew up under Communist
dictatorship, and became a political dissident in the
early 1980s. Many of his poems reflect a preoccupation
with political issues (the 1956 uprising, the 1968 protests,
the execution of Prime Minister Imre Nagy after 1956).
In the introduction Wilmer stresses the political context
of Petris poetry, at the same time drawing attention
to the poets irony and black humor, and his addiction
to word play which makes much of his best work
untranslatable. With explanatory notes.
30. ---. Eternal Monday: New and Selected Poems. Translated
by Clive Wilmer and George Gömöri. Newcastle
upon Tyne: Bloodaxe Books, 1999.
fifty-six collaborative translations by Gömöri
and Wilmer, twenty of which first appeared in Night
Song of the Personal Shadow (see no. 29). With a
foreword by Elaine Feinstein and introduction by Clive
Wilmer. The book comprises three sections: poems from
Petris first two books from 1971 and 1974, poems
originally published in samizdat collections
in 1982 and 1985, and poems written after 1989. Feinstein
compares Petri to Zbigniew Herbert and Miroslav Holub,
while Wilmers introduction emphasizes the political
context of Petris art. Mention is made of George
Szirtess criticism of Wilmers introduction
to Night Song of the Personal Shadow for stressing
the political aspect of Petris art at the expense
of the personal. With notes.
Pilinszky, János. The Desert of Love: Selected
Poems. Translated by János Csokits and Ted
Hughes. London: Anvil Press Poetry, 1989.
poems by Pilinszky (1921-1981), gathered from his volumes Trapeze and Parallel Bars (1940-1946), On
the Third Day (1946-1958), Big City Icons (1959-1970), Splinters (1971-192), Denouement (1973-1974) and Crater (1974-1985). Some of the same
translations were originally published by Carcanet Press
in 1976 under the title Selected poems. With
an introduction by Ted Hughes and an essay-memoir by
Ágnes Nemes Nagy. The formative experience for
Pilinszky, who came from a Catholic background, was
his conscription for military service in 1944; he spent
the last year of the war moving from one prison camp
to another in Austria and Germany. For the rest
of his career he struggled with the greatest challenge
of his generation, to write verse after Auschwitz
(Essay), reflected in many of his poems (Harbach
1944, On the Wall of a KZ-Lager, Passion of Ravensbrück,
Apocrypha). In each poem, we find the same
diamond centre: a post-apocalyptic silence, where the
nail remains in the hand, and the wound cannot speak (Introduction). Ted Hughes worked from Hungarian
poet János Csokitss rough translation;
the essay-memoir is by Pilinszkys contemporary
Ágnes Nemes Nagy, who together with Pilinszky
was the leader of the first post-war generation of poets.
---. János Pilinszky: 66 Poems: From the Hungarian
by István Tótfalusi. Pilinszky János:
66 vers: angolra fordította Tótfalusi
István. Budapest: Maecenas, 1991.
bilingual volume, with parallel texts in English and
Hungarian, and with an afterword by István Tótfalusi.
In his biographical essay Tótfalusi refers to
the apocalyptic subjects in Pilinszkys poetry,
and stresses the poets immense talent, pointing
out how he became the leader of the post-war generation
on the strength of a slim volume with merely 19 short
poems, published in 1946. Referring to the Csokits-Hughes
translations (see no. 31) Tótfalusi states that
with four exceptions he selected poems not appearing
in the previous collection, as it was not his intention
to compete with an English poet of Hughes stature.
---. Metropolitan Icons: Selected Poems of János
Pilinszky in Hungarian and in English. Edited and
translated by Emery George. Studies in Slavic Language
and Literature, vol. 8. Lewiston, N.Y.: E. Mellen Press,
bilingual volume, containing a selection of seventy-eight
poems. With notes and a bibliography.
Radnóti, Miklós. Foamy Sky: The Major
Poems of Miklós Radnóti. The Lockert
Library of Poetry in Translation. Translated by Zsuzsanna
Ozsváth and Frederick Turner. Princeton, NJ:
Princeton University Press, 1992.
seventy-seven poems in collaborative translations by
Ozsváth and Turner, this is the definitive work
of the 90s presenting the poetry of the tragically short-lived
Miklós Radnóti (1909-1944). With a short
introduction by Ozsváth, defining Radnóti's
place in relation to the Holocaust, and a lengthier
(13-page) essay by Turner, entitled The Journey of
Orpheus: On Translation, describing the collaborative
process by the two translators. Turners poem On
the Pains of Translating Miklós Radnóti is also included.
---. 33 Poems. 33 Vers. Translated by Thomas
Orszag-Land. Budapest: Maecenas, 1992.
---. Last Poems of Miklós Radnóti:
Written in a Nazi Labour Camp during the Last Months
of the Second World War and Found on His Murdered Body. Translated by Peter Zollman. [S.l.]: P. Zollman,
who was of Jewish descent, was murdered on a forced
march by Nazi guards; his last poems were found on his
body in a notebook two years later when the mass grave
where his body had been dumped was exhumed. This illustrated
bilingual version is based on the Hungarian facsimile
edition of the notebook, published by Magyar Helikon
in 1972. The translation is in commemoration of the
fiftieth anniversary of the poet's death.
---. Camp Notebook. Bori Notesz. Translated by
Francis R. Jones. Visible Poets Series. Todmorden, Lancs.:
Arc Publications, 2000.
bilingual volume with parallel texts, containing the
ten poems found in a notebook in Radnótis
coat pocket after his body was exhumed from a mass grave.
With a note from the series editor, a preface
and notes by the translator, an introduction by George
Szirtes, and illustrations featuring the Hungarian facsimile
edition of the notebook. Szirtes in his introduction
draws attention to the predominance of the Virgilian
Eclogue form, a version of pastoral associated
with the Augustinian return to Arcadia in Radnótis
late poetry, and discusses the role of pastoral scenes
in the last poems. Jones outlines her attempts to reproduce
the poetic structure and the rhyme/rhythm schemes of
the original in her translations.
Rakovszky, Zsuzsa. New Life. Translated and introduced
by George Szirges. Oxford: Oxford University Press,
poems from the oeuvre of the contemporary Hungarian
poet, born in 1950, selected from three Hungarian collections
published in 1981, 1987 and 1991. Rakovszkys poems
tend to concentrate on what
appear to be
intensely private experiences, reflecting at the
same time a shifting urban landscape of noisy
neighbours, malfunctioning television sets, shadows
on landings, snatched meetings, and dying ideologies (Introduction).
Szirtes, George. Bridge Passages. Oxford
Poets. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991.
British poet George Szirtes (b. 1948) spent most of
the year 1989 in Hungary while the countrys socialist
political regime was collapsing. Most of the poems
in Bridge Passages
constitute a kind of
reportage based on the events of that year, a reportage
in which journalism is experienced through poetry.
The collection of forty-four poems (bearing the dedication
For my friends in Hungary) includes seven
translations from the Hungarian of Ottó Orbán
(originally published in The Blood of the Walsungs,
see no. 24), and one poem, Diary, after Ágnes
---. Blind Field. Oxford Poets. Oxford:
Oxford University Press, 1994.
collection of twenty-five poems by Szirtes, written
predominantly in English between 1990 and 1994. This
is ostensibly a book about photographs and photography,
but actually about images of frozen time, recording
the authors visit to his mothers birthplace
in Transylvania (present-day Romania). The poem Dancing
with Mountains commemorates Hungarian poet Ágnes
Nemes Nagy, who passed away in 1991; four translations
from Nemes Nagy are included (Four Short Poems from
the Hungarian of Ágnes Nemes Nagy).
Vas, István. Through the Smoke: Selected Poems. Translated from the Hungarian by Bruce Berlind,
Gerard Gorman, Daniel Hoffman, Jascha Kessler, Kenneth
McRobbie, William Jay Smith, George Szirtes. Budapest:
poems by István Vas (1910-1991), selected by
Miklós Vajda, and introduced by George Szirtes.
A volume of scholarly ambition, with Hungarian titles
and notes on the translators. Vas, a contemporary of
Gyula Illyés and a friend of Miklós Radnóti,
started out under the influence of avant-garde poet
Lajos Kassák, but soon reverted to traditional
form and became known as a classically orientated poet.
Szirtess introduction analyzes the role of urban
scenes and images of nature in Vass poetry.
ANTHOLOGIES OF HUNGARIAN POETRY
42. Blessed Harbours: An Anthology of Hungarian-Canadian
Authors. Edited by John Miksa. Prose Series, no.
65. Toronto: Guernica, 2002.
poems and short stories by thirty-five authors, twenty
of whom are poets. With a preface by the editor, an
essay entitled Their Language Is Their Destiny by
George Bisztray, and biographical notes. Miksa in his
introduction stresses the prevalence of surrealism,
neo-dadaism and mystical populism among the younger
generation of poets. The aim of the compilers is to
show Canadian readers that writers of Hungarian descent
have made valuable contributions to Canadian literature;
the role of translation is somewhat underplayed. Some
of the poems and short stories included were originally
written in English, but the majority were translated
from the Hungarian (Preface) - in some
cases it is impossible to tell what the original language
43. The Colonnade of Teeth: Modern Hungarian Poetry. Edited by George Gömöri and George Szirtes.
Newcastle upon Tyne: Bloodaxe Books, 1996.
20th-century Hungarian poets are presented
with three to ten poems each, arranged chronologically
by the poets' date of birth, starting with Lörinc
Szabó (1900-1957) and ending with Gyözö
Ferencz (b. 1954). The English versions are the work
of 29 translators. With a foreword by Edwin Morgan,
an introduction by George Gömöri and George
Szirtes, and biographical notes. Szirtes in his introduction
outlines the history of 20th-century Hungarian
poetry, while Morgan in his foreword welcomes the fact
that due to the concerted and determined efforts of
a generation of editors and poet-translators Hungarian
poetry has been made available for English readers in
some excellent translations.
44. Homeland in the Heights: An Anthology of Post-World
War II Hungarian Poetry. Selected and edited by
Csilla Bertha. Budapest: Eötvös József
the work of sixteen poets with an average of 8-20 poems,
starting with and centered around the tradition of Gyula
Illyés, considered the champion of national values,
especially in relation to Hungarian minorities living
in the neighboring countries. The title is a quote from
Illyés's poem of the same title with the message
that even under oppression in a foreign country the
idea of the homeland survives as long as the native
language and culture are kept alive. Poets from Hungary
include Sándor Weöres (1913-1989), János
Pilinszky, Ágnes Nemes Nagy (1922-1991), László
Nagy (1925-1978), Margit Szécsi (1928-1990),
Ferenc Juhász (b. 1928), Sándor Csoóri,
and József Utassy (b. 1941), in addition to Gyula
Illyés, as well as seven ethnic Hungarian poets
- Sándor Kányádi , Gizella
Hervay (1934-1982), Sándor Gál (b. 1937),
Domokos Szilágyi (1938-1976), Árpád
Farkas (b. 1944), Gáspár Nagy (b. 1949)
and Géza Szöcs (b. 1953) - living in Romania
and Southern Slovakia (the latter awkwardly referred
to as the Highlands). With a preface by
Csilla Bertha and an introduction by Csilla and Zoltán
Bertha, offering historic background and biographical
information. The majority of the poems were translated
for this anthology by Len Roberts, Ádám
Makkai, Daniel Hoffman and Erzsébet Léb;
other, previously published poems are the work of Bruce
Berlind, Tony Connor, Alan Dixon, Gyözö Ferencz,
Gerard Groman, Ted Hughes, George Gömöri,
Hugh Maxton, Kenneth McRobbie, Edwin Morgan, William
Jay Smith, István Tótfalusi, George Szirtes,
Vernon Watkins, and David Wevill. While the selection
and introduction show a strong nationalistic bent, this
volume is the only source for a major selection by ethnic
Hungarian poets in Romania and Slovakia.
45. In Quest of the Miracle Stag : The Poetry
of Hungary: An Anthology of Hungarian Poetry in English
Translation from the 13th Century to the
Present in Commemoration of the 1100th Anniversary
of the Foundation of Hungary and the 40th
Anniversary of the Hungarian Uprising of 1956. Edited
by Adam Makkai. Chicago: Atlantis-Centaur; Budapest:
M. Szivárvány and Corvina, 1996.
approx. 900 pages long, encyclopedic anthology is the
most comprehensive survey of Hungarian poetry published
in the English language so far. It features 72 poets
as well as folk and anonymous poetry, rendered into
English by 92 translators, and it uses a scholarly apparatus,
including biographical notes for each poet, an
almost 100-page essay entitled A Nation and Its Poetry by the late László Cs. Szabó,
an eminent Hungarian-British writer, scholar and essayist, A Short History of Hungarian Verse by the late
László Gáldi, Notes on the Hungarian
Language by Adam Makkai and Earl M. Herrick, and
an index of translators. The thirty-two page long table
of contents with its periodic and genre division could
serve in itself as a tool for scholarly studies in the
field. This title is virtually the only source for folk,
anonymous and pre-19th century Hungarian
poetry in English translation. In his introduction Adam
Makkai credits the team of extremely dedicated scholars
and writers mainly Hungarian émigrés
- whose efforts made the publication of the anthology
possible. The project took over 30 years to complete;
some of the original movers behind it (e.g. Paul Tabori)
did not live to see the published book. Credit is given
to the late Ladislas Gara, whose groundbreaking Anthologie
de la poésie hongroise, published by Seuil
in 1962, was the first major attempt to bring Hungarian
poetry to foreign readers.
46. The Lost Rider: A Bilingual Anthology: The
Corvina Book of Hungarian Verse. Selected and edited
by Péter Dávidházi, Gyözö
Ferencz, László Kúnos, Szabolcs
Várady and George Szirtes. Budapest: Corvina,
bilingual volume with parallel texts, offering a survey
of Hungarian poetry through the ages, presenting 1-9
poems by thirty-seven poets from Bálint Balassi
in the late 16th-century until the generation
born in the early 1920s in chronological arrangement.
Living poets are not included. Twenty-three translators
are represented. The volume features an attractive
selection of late-19th and early-20th century poetry (János Arany, János
Vajda, Endre Ady, Gyula Reviczky, Ernö Szép),
not easily found elsewhere, while twentieth-century
poets are somewhat under-represented. A handy paperback
volume without explanatory notes or scholarly apparatus,
this anthology is meant to be savored and enjoyed.
47. The Maecenas Anthology of Living Hungarian Poetry. Selected and translated by István Tótfalusi.
Budapest: Maecenas, 1997.
anthology featuring over eighty living poets writing
in the Hungarian language, including poets of Hungarian
ethnicity from the neighboring countries (mostly Romania
and Yugoslavia). Both pre- and post-WW II generations
are represented, although with an emphasis on older,
more established poets. Three to five poems by each
poet are presented, all rendered into English by a single
translator. With short biographies, and some explanatory
notes. This volume is not served too well by its very
awkward layout and generally shoddy production.
*48. Maradok: Magyar költök hangja Erdélyböl.
I Remain: Voices of the Hungarian Poets from Transylvania. Translated by Paul Sohar. Csíkszereda: Pro-Print
Hungarian and English.
*49. Poetry Translations Mainly from Hungarian. Edited
and translated by Peter Zollman. London: Babel, 1997.
bilingual anthology representing Zollmans personal
selection from the 1800s to the present, featuring some
major Hungarian poets along with a short selection of
translations from French, German, Latin, Portuguese
*50. The Science of In-Between: An Anthology of Nineteen
Contemporary Hungarian Poets. Edited and translated
by Nicholas Kolumban. Budapest: Széphalom Könyvmühely;
New York: Box Turtle Press, 1999.
anthology of nineteen contemporary Hungarian poets -
from György Faludy through Sándor Csoóri,
Sándor Kányádi, György Gömöri,
Elemér Horváth, György Petri to Zsuzsa
Takács, Zsuzsa Kapecz, Tibor Zalán - is
a representative selection translated by Nicholas Kolumban.
All poems of this book were published in literary periodicals
in the US. The notes (written by the translator) present
shortly the Hungarian authors of the anthology, the
Introduction is the work of a young expert of the Princeton
University, Anna Dropick.
*51. Some Hungarian Poets. Translated by John Robert
Colombo and George Jonas. A QuasiBook ed. Toronto: Colombo
& Col, 1995.
five Hungarian poets: Endre Ady (1877-1919), Dezsö
Kosztolányi, Attila József, Miklós
Radnóti, Gyula Illyés and Lörinc
Szabó. With prefaces by John Robert Colombo and
52. Treasury of Hungarian Love Poems, Quoations and Provers. Edited and partially translated by Katherine Gyékényesi
Gatto. New York: Hippocrene Books, 1996.
bilingual anthology with parallel texts, containing
forty-six poems by twenty-eight authors, followed by
a section of anonymous quotations, proverbs and sayings.
The selection reflects a strong taste for sentimentality.
Over half of the poems are from the 16th
to 19th centuries. The partially translated
phrase on the title page is difficult to interpret,
since no other translator is credited.
53. Zollman, Péter. Kész a leltár: Egy évszázad
félszáz magyar verse angolul. The Audit
is Done: A Taste of 20th Century Hungarian
Poetry. Európai Kulturális Füzetek.
European Cultural Review. Budapest: Új Világ
most recent collection of 50 translations presents a
cross-section of 20th century Hungarian poetry
encompassing in time an entire century (from Ady, born
in 1877 to Dániel Varró, born exactly
100 years later), stretching in scope from the best
regarded and most frequently translated poets (Ady,
Babits, József, Radnóti) to such lesser-known
ones as Varró or István Baka, and covering
poetry written both inside and outside of Hungary. In
his introductory essay Stephen Watts praises Zollmans
very successful attempts to bring across rhymed
Hungarian poems into rhymed English versions:
He has a very strong feel for the qualities that
rhyme brings to Hungarian poetry
adheres closely, though also very imaginatively, to
the needs, openings and dictates of rhyme and to accompanying
rhythm without sacrificing syntax or faithfulness to
the original text.
it is a quality that, precisely
because it so often does work here, we can feel grateful
for (A Taste of 20th Century Hungarian
Poetry). With parallel texts in Hungarian and English,
biographical notes in English quoted from In Quest
of the Miracle Stag (see no. 45), some
illustrations and a Hungarian-language note by series
editor Gábor Mihályi.
GENERAL ANTHOLOGIES OF POETRY FEATURING HUNGARIAN POEMS
54. Contemporary East European Poetry: An Anthology. Edited by Emery George. 2nd,
rev. ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
revised edition of this major (490 p.) English-language
anthology, originally published in 1983, contains significant
new material: the editor claims in the introduction
that he intended to shift the focus towards the generation
of poets born after 1945, and to feature more women
poets. Four Hungarian poets are represented with one
to two poems and a short biographical note: Dezsö
Tandori (b. 1938), György Petri, Zsuzsa Rakovszky
and Flóra Imre (b. 1961). The translators are
Bruce Berlind, Robert Austerlitz, Barbara Howes with
Margot Archer, and Emery George. With an introduction
by the editor.
55. The Faber Book of Modern European Poetry. Edited
by A. Alvarez. London: Faber and Faber, 1992.
a section entitled Hungary, featuring Sándor
Weöres (The Colonnade of Teeth, Orpheus Killed,
Terra Sigillata, In Memoriam Gyula Juhász, The
Secret Country, Monkeyland), János Pilinszky (Harbach 1944, The French Prisoner, On the Wall of
a KZ-Lager, Passion at Ravensbrück, Impromptu,
Straight Labyrinth, Jewel), Ferenc Juhász (Gold, Birth of the Foal, Then There Are Fish, Comet-Watchers,
Mary), and György Petri (I Am Stuck,
Lord, On Your Hook, Apocryphal, On the 24th
Anniversary of the Little October Revolution, Night
Song of the Personal Shadow, Cold Peace, Morning Coffee). By various translators. Alvarezs introduction
offers a summary of literature in Poland, Czechoslovakia
and Hungary, stating that even before the [Iron]
curtain rusted away, the literature of Eastern Europe
had acquired a certain spurious chic and was being praised
for the wrong reasons, and declares the poetry
in this countries meant the survival of ordinary
human values - sanity, decency, self-respect - in an
ocean of corruption and hypocrisy (Introduction).
56. Holocaust Poetry. Compiled and introduced by
Hilda Schiff. London: Fount Paperbacks, 1995.
thematically (Alienation; Persecution; Destruction,
Rescuers, Bystanders, Perpetrators; Afterwards). Contains
Miklós Radnóti's Clouded Sky in
the Persecution section, and his Forced March and Postcards in the Destruction section
(translated by Steven Polgar, S. Berg and S.J. Marks
collaboratively), as well as János Pilinszky's Harbach 1944, Passion of Ravensbrück, On the
Wall of a KZ-Lager and Fable, also under Destruction, presented in the János Csokits-Ted
Hughes versions, although only Hughes is credited. The
fact that Radnóti, a victim of the Holocaust
is represented with fewer poems than the Catholic Pilinszky
might be a consequence of the popularity of Ted Hughes
57. Literary Olympians 1992: An International Anthology. Edited by Elizabeth Bartlett. Boston: Ford-Brown
and Co., Publishers, 1992.
bilingual anthology, including two poems by Ottó
Orbán (Poetry and Bird, translated
by Jascha Kessler with Maria Körösy), and As If by Zsuzsa Rakovszky, translated by George
Szirtes. With short biographical notes.
58. Modern Poems on the Bible: An Anthology. Edited
and with an introduction by David Curzon. Philadelphia:
The Jewish Publication Society, 1994.
one poem by Éva Tóth (b. 1939), entitled Genesis, and translated from the Hungarian by
59. Poems to Read: A New Favorite Poem Project Anthology. Edited by Robert Pinsky and Maggie Dietz. New York:
W.W. Norton and Co., 2002.
Attila József's poem The Seventh, translated
by John Bátki (whose name is misspelled here
60. The Poetry of Survival: Post-War Poets of Central
and Eastern Europe. Edited and introduced by Daniel
Weissbort. London: Anvil Press Poetry, 1991.
fourteen poems by Ágnes Nemes Nagy, translated
by Bruce Berlind, Hugh Maxton and Frederic Will, as
well as fifteen poems by János Pilinszky translated
by János Csokits and Ted Hughes, and by Peter
Jay. With a two-page long biographical note on both
poets. Also contains the transcript of a radio interview
with poet and editor Éva Tóth on Pilinszky.
61. Scanning the Century: The Penguin Book of the Twentieth
Century in Poetry. Edited by Peter Forbes. London:
Includes The French Prisoner by János Pilinszky
(translated by János Csokits and Ted Hughes)
and Pornographic Magazine by Zsuzsa Rakovszky
(translated by George Gömöri and Clive Wilmer).
62. Shifting Borders: East European Poetries of the Eighties. Compiled
and edited by Walter Cummins. Rutherford: Fairleigh
Dickinson University Press; London: Associated University
Hungarian section (p. 215-258) of this 481-page English-language
anthology was compiled by Bruce Berlind: his 3-page
introductory essay presents Hungarian poetry at
the crossroads in the political sense of the word.
Short biographical notes follow on the ten poets selected
(Sándor Csoóri, Gyula Illyés, László
Nagy, Ágnes Nemes Nagy, Imre Oravecz, Ottó
Orbán, János Pilinszky, Dezsö Tandori,
István Vas and Sándor Weöres). With
a few exceptions the 32 poems presented in the volume
are translations of Bruce Berlind (some in collaboration
with Maria Körösy). In keeping with the political
character of the introduction the first poem is Gyula
Illyéss famous One Sentence on Tyranny,
in Berlinds translation.
Snodgrass, W. D. Selected Translations. Rochester,
NY: BOA Editions, Ltd., 1998.
of five Hungarian folk songs (The Bad Wife; Time
To Settle Down Now; Carriage, Wagon, Carriage Sled;
If I Climbed That Mountain; Near the Csitar Mountain
The Spaces of Hope: Poetry for Our Times and Places. Edited by Peter Jay. London: Anvil Press Poetry,
Includes Desert of Love, November Elysium, On the Back of
a Photograph and On the Wall of a KZ-Lager by
János Pilinszky in the translation of János
Csokits and Ted Hughes, and Coolie by Sándor
Weöres, translated by Edwin Morgan.
*65. The PIP anthology of World Poetry of the 20th
Century. Edited by Douglas Messerli. Los Angeles:
Green Integer, 2000.
a section on poet, short-story writer and humorist
Frigyes Karinthy (1887-1938).
*66. Transylvanian Voices: an Anthology of Contemporary
Poets from Cluj-Napoca. Edited and Translated by
Adam J. Sorkin and Liviu Bleoca. Iasi: Romanian Cultural
BIOGRAPHIES, CRITICISM, INTERPRETATION
Basa, Enikö M., ed. Hungarian Literature. Review
of National Literatures, vol. 17. New York: Published
for the Council of National Literatures by Griffon House
Fahlström, Susanna. Form and Philosophy in
Sándor Weöres Poetry.
Ph.D. diss., Uppsala University, 1999. Acta Universitatis
Upsaliensis. Studia Uralica Upseliensia 32 (1999).
Gömöri, George and Clive Wilmer, eds. The
Life and Poetry of Miklós Radnóti: Essays. East European Monographs, no. 528. Boulder, CO.:
East European Monographs, 1999.
Kabdebo, Thomas. Attila József: 'Can You Take
On This Awesome Life?'. Budapest: Argumentum Kiadó;
Maynooth: Cardinal Press, 1997.
Keenoy, Ray, Menkes-Ivry, Vivienne and Zsuzsanna Varga. The Babel Guide to Hungarian Literature in English
Translation. Babel Guides. Oxford: Boulevard Books,
Ozsváth, Zsuzsanna. In the Footsteps of Orpheus:
The Life and Times of Miklós Radnóti. Jewish Literature and Culture. Bloomington: Indiana
University Press, 2000.