Jubilee 2000 in the Light of the Bible
Churchpeople’s Union 87
Annual Conference 13-16 July 1999)
concept of a jubilee has been popularised in Europe by the campaign starting
from the United Kingdom called Jubilee 2000. The motivation of those who
launched this campaign was to find an approach to global economic issues which
could find broad support within the European population and even power
structures. The cancellation of the unpayable debt of the poorest country can
be understood by many and is neither too radical nor too complex. It also has
the advantage of the "single issue approach", which is good for broad campaigns.
approach can be understood as a charitable effort not touching the vested
interests of a substantial part of the European population. However, it can
also be interpreted as an entry to a broader spectrum of questions and also
strategies. This article argues that the relevant biblical texts themselves do
lead to a more comprehensive and deeper view, which may start at a certain
point but then move ahead addressing the root causes of the problems before us.
The socio-economic context of the biblical Sabbath-year and the Jubilee
classical texts relating to the Sabbath-year and the Jubilee in Leviticus 25
belong to the Priestly Codex written in exile and shortly after the return of
the exiled people to Judea. Their background is the catastrophic breakdown of
the socio-political order of the monarchic times manifested in the destruction
of Jerusalem and the deportation of the Judaic upper class to Babylon in the
year 586 B. C. The question behind these texts is: How can we avoid the
same social, economic and political developments leading to the experienced
catastrophe when we rebuild the Judaic society after exile? So it is important
to understand the structure of the earlier negative developments in order to
grasp the precise meaning of the Sabbath and Jubilee rules.
enough, the rhythm of seven years first appears in a text which most probably
also reacts to a catastrophe, called the Book of Covenant (Exodus 21-23). Here
the destruction of the Northern Kingdom by the Assyrians (722 B. C.) preceded
the text. Prophets like Amos and Hosea had predicted the breakdown as a result
of the social and economic injustices in the northern Kingdom if people did not
turn from their wrong ways. Now the disciples of the prophets, with the
refugees from the North, came down to the Southern Kingdom reinforcing the
message of prophets there like Isaiah and Micha saying: "If you do not turn
around to justice, you will suffer the same disaster as the Northern Kingdom."
is in this situation that the Book of Covenant introduces certain rules related
to the rhythm of seven and other socio-economic laws:
On the seventh day of the week the farmer shall rest and also give rest to his
cattle, his slaves and the foreigners so that they may "breathe".
In the seventh year the slaves shall be released without paying anything for
In the seventh year the field shall lie fallow in order that the poor people
and the animals can eat from it.
Foreigners, widows and orphans shall not be violently exploited like the Hebrew
slaves in Egypt because then God will hear their cries and destroy the
oppressors as he did in the case of the Egyptians (cf. Exodus 3,7ff.).
Anyone who lends to another person shall take neither a security nor interest.
this early text against charging security and interest on a loan there are
other indications during this time of the late 8th century B. C. which indicate
that there was a change in economic mechanisms splitting the society more and
more into rich and poor. Like Isaiah 5, 8 says: "Shame on you! you who add
house to house and join field to field until not an acre remains, and you are
left to dwell alone in the land."
to the 8th century the Ancient Near East and also the Eastern Mediterranean
area was characterised by aristocratic monarchic systems of rule. Here it was
the form of a direct violence by which the powerful appropriated large estates,
slave labour, raw materials and goods as well as tribute from the conquered
peoples. During the 8th century a new type of economy spread from Greece: the
For whatever historic reasons the aristocratic order was replaced and
superseded by a legal revolution protecting private property by absolute legal
provisions. The free property holders formed the new community of the "polis".
On the basis of this property value a new credit economy developed with strict
rules on demanding security and interest for loans. If the loan could not be
paid back the pledge, which in most cases was the land of the debtor, fell into
the hands of the creditor. This is what the Isaiah text is talking about. The
early form of interest is debt slavery, which means that the debtor has to work
for the creditor in order to pay the interest. More and more this credit
economy develops into a money economy. If the debtor, however, does not have
money to pay interest and return the capital, land and then labour is
distrained (cf. Nehemiah 5:1-5). Taking into account that the small producing
families of farmers besides their subsistence had to produce a surplus value
for the luxury of the aristocratic monarchic élites as well as for the
tribute of the respective super-power it is easy to understand the socially and
economically disastrous consequences of this new economy. Now the small farmers
could be driven by members of their own class into hunger, distraint of their
means of production and into slavery by the new mechanisms of private property,
credit and interest. This is what the prophets protested at in Israel
and against which Israel developed laws, to prohibit the debt mechanism (like
prohibiting taking "security and interest") and, in the case of falling into
slavery, to provide for the periodic liberation of these debt slaves. The
Solonic reforms of 594 B. C. are a parallel reaction to the disastrous social
consequences of the new property economy in Greece itself. Solon abolished debt
slavery but at the same time reinforced the role of property by distributing
political rights according to the amount of property a citizen held (timocracy).
is the mission of the people of God in the new socio-economic context? Besides
the periodic liberation of slaves (cf. also Jer. 34:8ff.) the cancellation of
debt was included in the rules of the seventh year. The first example is
Deuteronomy 15:1ff. (the oldest texts of Deuteronomy stemming from the Josianic
reform of 622 B. C). What does this text mean? The Hebrew concept here is
The creditor is supposed to renounce not only his claim but also the pledged
property of the debtor, normally his land including his house which are the
means of production of a small farmer. This means that after seven years not
only the possible consequence of the debt (the debt slavery of the family) is
cancelled but also the cause is eliminated - the indebtedness and the
consequent mortgage on the means of production of the debtor. This opens up a
new beginning in freedom.
In the Deuteronomy (15:12ff.) the liberated slave has to receive even a small
capital from his master so that he can make a new start as a free small farmer.
is without parallel in the Ancient Near East and the Greco-Roman antiquity
because in these regulations Israel rejects the absoluteness of property as
well as the transformation of an enslaved person (at least of their own people)
into absolute property. Deuteronomy is of the opinion that if the people of God
follows God's good rule of justice and compassion there will be no poor among
them (Deuteronomy 15,4ff.).
this background it is possible to precisely understand and place in context the
classical text Leviticus 25. It summarizes the socio-economic rules as codified
by the Priestly Codex in the so-called Holiness-law for the post-exilic new
beginning in Judea
The centre of the text is the theological statement without which everything
else cannot be understood. It says why Israel must have a fundamentally
different economic order compared with the surrounding peoples, the laws of
which are given by the king or by property owners. In Israel law comes from
outside - from the Sinai (Lev. 25:1) - and is given by God. It is taken away
from the power of the kings and the property owners in the interest of equality
among human beings and therefore in the interest of the poor and the weak. God
says, according to Lev. 25:23: "No land shall be sold outright, because the
land is mine, and you are coming into it as aliens and settlers." So people can
be tenants of the land, not owners.
anyone who refers to the Jubilee year today must be ready to face the question
of property. The laws of Lev. 25 are based on the rejection of the absoluteness
of property originating in Greece and later codified in the Roman law. If you
want to follow the biblical God, you must accept God as the owner of the land
and every "means of production". Therefore, human beings can only have the
right to use and to rent land (as the means of production in an agrarian
society). From here everything else follows:
2-7: In the seventh year the land has to be allowed to celebrate a "Shabbath".
8-13: After seven time seven years the "Jobel", the horn, has to be played and
all families have to get a piece of land in order to equally be able to care
for themselves as in the tribal community before monarchic times.
14-17: The price of the land must not be determined by the market and therefore
by speculation, but the 50th year is the reference point to calculate how many
harvests a land can still produce, and those have to be paid.
25-28: If a brother and his family are "deep down", i. e. in need so that they
have to sell their land and their house, then the next relative has to redeem
them (the order of Ge'ulah).
35-38: And when people of Israel have to make loans they shall not take
interest or additional tribute from their brothers.
39-46: Nobody shall enslave persons of his own people, the Israelites. Again
the same argument: God is their owner. God has liberated them from slavery in
should be mentioned that the Priestly Codex weakens some of the social laws of
Deuteronomy. Liberation from slavery and the restitution of the land lost
through distraint are taken out of the regulations of the seventh year and
postponed to the fiftieth year. What is the explanation for the fact that
historically this is the only text where the restitution of the distribution of
land is mentioned for the fiftieth year? It seems that this is related to the
return of the exiled people from Babylon 50 years after their deportation. At
this time this problem was very relevant: How shall the distribution of the
land be regulated after the landless poor, who were left in the country, had
taken and cultivated the fields of the exiled upper class? Are the big
landlords to get back their land which they once took from the people through
violence and debt mechanisms, or should they not get back anything? The answer
the Jubilee regulation gives is a compromise on the basis of the premonarchic
egalitarian tribal society: "Every family shall have a piece of land for their
the "Third Isaiah" comes back to the Jubilee as a hope of the future (Is. 61:2:
"A year of the Lord's favour"). This is taken up by the evangelist Luke in
chapter 4:1ff., when he proclaims that this hope is being realised in the
Messiah Jesus. In Acts 4:32-35 Luke depicts the early Christian community in a
way that it fulfills the deuteronomic Tora in the form of a community sharing
all property with the effect that in this community there are no needy poor
(cf. Deuteronomy 15:4).
is important to note that the postexilic Judaic community and also Jesus and
his followers not only pro-actively live God's alternative economic and social
order but that they also resist when the Hellenistic-Roman empires and their
collaborators in the provinces try to violently impose political and economic
rules and practices which are against God's law. The story about the resistance
of the three men refusing to adore the golden statue is a very good example
Jesus does not only request the clear decision between God and Mammon but
attacks in direct non-violent action the economic center in Judea, the temple
collaborating with Rome and also calls for a boycott of the currency of the
Roman occupation forces (cf. Mark, 11:15ff. and 12:13ff.)
in this very short selective overview of the biblical alternative approaches to
mechanisms of indebtedness and impoverishment the key theological elements -
God's justice and compassion - are rooted within very specific socio-economic
contexts. Therefore we need careful hermeneutic reflections in order to release
the power of the biblical texts for the solution of our present problems.
Alternatives to the mechanisms of impoverishment and debt today and in the 21
are two basic consequences for approaching our own situation in the light of
the biblical history:
is not enough to isolate the forgiveness of debt in the Sabbath and Jubilee
approach. We have to analyse the principles and the structure of the global
economy as a whole and to identify the critical points in order to develop
responses and alternatives analogous to Leviticus 25, and other biblical texts.
key approach of the Bible is not to address the kings and the leaders of the
nations directly but to address the people of God to work out an alternative
which then can serve as a shining example among the peoples of the world. This
is its mission. In the First Testament the people of Israel were called into
this mission; in the messianic scriptures of the Second Testament the disciples
of Jesus and the emerging church are addressed. So the Christians,
congregations and churches have first to evaluate their own economic
structures, policies and actions concerning land, work and money.
is the context of the churches, particularly the European churches, when it
comes to evaluating their own dealings with the land, labour and capital?
There is one basic analogy between the context of Judea after the 8th century
B. C. and the European modern times since the 14th century A. D., because the
political economy of Europe has taken over the absoluteness of private property
and subsequent interest and money mechanisms from the Greco-Roman times. This
was worked out philosophically by Hobbes and Locke and codified in the western
constitutions such as the American and the French Constitutions of 1776 and
1789, as well as in the Code Napoléon, from where it was taken over in
most European constitutions.
that analogy there are two differences between the ancient and modern times
which are important to realise in order to avoid short circuits in relating
biblical texts to our own situation.
first difference is the replacement of slave labour by wage labour in a long
process which lasted until the 19th century. Secondly, the capitalist mode of
production was developed with the help of wage labour. This does not only take
over the money functions of circulation and treasury building but also enlarges
its accumulation function. In the Hellenistic-Roman system the owners of the
means of production, land and slave labour, having earned more money, put it
into the circulation or the treasury. In modern times the profits gained from
the private ownership of the means of production are being re-invested in order
to maximize the productive forces and gain an even larger profit, and this is
exactly the meaning of capital as distinct from money. The consequence is that
unlike in antiquity modern times has seen the emergence of a growth economy.
this basis it is not possible to simply take over the prohibition of taking
interest from the Bible as an instrument countering today's mechanisms of
impoverishment and debt because - if one stays in the framework of the
capitalist growth economy in which the owners of the means of production can
appropriate the surplus value created by labour - here the interest is the
profit part of the surplus value created through growth.
This certainly does not mean that Christians and churches should neglect the
very necessary question of whether they can put their money in the normal
circulation created by the commercial banks. The analogy to the complete
prohibition of taking interest in biblical times today would be the orientation
of the interest rate to the real economic success and growth. It is true that
at the present time interest rates are rather low within the national regulated
money market, but the big commercial banks take huge amounts of money to the
transnational deregulated money markets. Here they charge very high interest
from the countries of the South and East when it comes to the short-term
re-scheduling of debt, and the banks also use the difference between debit and
credit interest to engage in speculation which, together with currency and
derivative speculation, creates tremendous risks for the real economy.
taking into account the complexity of the issue of interest, there is a clear
consequence for churches which want to take the Bible seriously: They have to
their money from the big commercial banks
and put it either into local credit cooperatives or alternative banks which
guarantee not only a socially and ecologically ethical investment but also
orient their interest rate to the real economic result.
further key issue is the question of
ownership of the means of production
The Bible understands the ownership of the means of production (land) as a
relative right to use the property for the subsistence of the families plus
certain social duties (care for widows, orphans, strangers etc.). The absolute
right to own the means of production necessarily leads to dispossessing weaker
participants in the economy and to the concentration of wealth in fewer and
fewer hands. After the breakdown of the classical liberal capitalism during the
great recession in 1929 and the two world wars the growing labour movement and
other factors made it possible in Europe to limit the absoluteness of property.
E. g. in the German Constitution (GG14) property obliges the owner to be
socially responsible (Sozialpflichtigkeit des Eigentums). This leads to the
right of co-determination of the workers in the Industrial Democracy Acts, on
the one hand, and to systems of progressive taxation, on the other, i. e. the
higher the income the higher the tax. This progressive tax on business profits
and profits from assets (be it financial or profits from estates) has been
eroded in the neo-liberal phase since the 70s. The tax burden was pushed more
and more onto dependent labour (in Germany between 1980 and 1995 plus
73 %) while profits were taxed less and less (minus 9 % in the same
period). An additional feature is the tax flight of capital through the
transnationalised markets. The result of both mechanisms is that not only the
impoverished countries of the South and the East have over-indebted public
budgets, so have the rich industrial countries in Europe (except those to which
the tax flight money goes like Switzerland and Luxemburg). This leaves the
governments to introduce austerity politics cutting not only development aid,
but also the services for the socially vulnerable, employment programmes,
education and health.
the complexity of the question of property churches who try to live up to the
biblical traditions can take a clear decision on at least one point: tax
flight. If in a capitalist system one of the few limited possibilities to curb
unlimited accumulation of wealth and to avoid progressive impoverishment,
namely the progressive system of tax, is systematically eroded by the owners of
capital and their agents, the big commercial banks, then for the churches there
can be only one conclusion:
cooperating with the commercial banks who help professionally to avoid tax
In Germany the three biggest banks, the Deutsche Bank, Dresdner Bank and
Commerzbank are already involved in court cases because of this, but
practically all commercial banks do the same. So the churches have to go to
alternative banks - and there are 35 of them in Europe - and also to those
local and regional saving banks who are not allowed to get involved in
is another area of alternative economic practice where the churches can follow
the biblical tradition and this is the more just sharing of
The transnational corporations (TNCs) use their global mobility to play the
locally restricted workers against each other in order to produce unemployment
instead of using productivity gains to cut working hours. In this way they can
put pressure on wages and the working conditions. If when experiencing a
decrease in income churches behave like the TNCs and cut employment instead of
redistributing work and income in a new way they have little credibility when
calling for a more just economy.
it is important that the churches experiment with models of a
just sharing of work and income
are only some examples of the churches' possibilities of evaluating their own
economic structure and behaviour in the light of the Bible. This is
hermeneutically significant in two ways: Firstly the biblical traditions regard
the exemplary socio-economic practice of the people of God as the key mission
it has (cf. Is. 2:1ff. and Mt. 5:13ff.). Secondly, a church cannot make demands
without at least fragmentarily showing it practises what it preaches. If,
however, it is credible it can speak prophetically with unambiguous clarity.
it is very important to note that various international ecumenical bodies have
made important decisions to engage their members in a
as far as
is concerned. In 1997 the World Alliance of Reformed Churches (WARC) in its 23d
General Council in Debrecen, Hungary issued the following call: "We now call
for a commited process of progressive recognition, education and confession
(processus confessionis) within all WARC member churches at all levels
regarding economic injustice and ecological destruction."
call was taken up in the 8th Assembly of the World Council of Churches (WCC) in
Harare, in December 1998. Two important sets of decisions and recommendations
concern debt relief and call for alternatives to the present global economy.
First of all the Assembly affirms that the prophetic action of the churches
vis-à-vis political and economic powers has to start from the
identification with the victims and therefore in alliances with them and other
forces in civil society working in solidarity with them (III, 6). Secondly they
address the self-appointed G7 (G8) nations of the Global Economic Summit in the
Line with the Sabbath-Jubilee Tradition, the Eighth Assembly of the World
Council of Churches Appeal to the Leaders of the G8 Nations to Recognize the
Urgent Need to:
the debts of the poorest countries to enable them to enter the new millennium
with a fresh start;
reduce the debts of the middle income countries within the same time frame;
a new, independent and transparent arbitration process for negotiating and
agreeing upon international debt cancellation;
that tough conditions should be imposed on debtor governments, but that these
conditions must not be prerequisite for debt cancellation. They must be
determined and monitored by local community organizations, including churches
and other representative organizations of civil society;
their powers to ensure that funds illegitimately transferred to secret foreign
bank accounts are returned to debtor nations;
in consultation with civil society, in a process of global economic reform
toward a just distribution of wealth and preventing new cycles of debt."
means that the Jubilee 2000 campaign cannot be restricted to just the relief of
the unpayable debt of the poorest countries. Rather this is the entrance into a
much larger agenda that has to be followed through by the churches, civil
society and the political and economic actors.
There are already some enlargements of the campaign underway. One concerns the
specific demand to cancel the debt of Nicaragua and Honduras, the countries
which were most struck by hurricane Mitch. In addition a particular campaign
has started to cancel the apartheid-caused debt in southern Africa and even to
pay reparation to these countries.
It introduces two important new features to the Jubilee work:
criteria of odious, illegitimate debt;
necessity for European banks and governments to pay reparation;
criteria particularly concern German and Swiss banks.
the climax of the racist repression against the black majority the South
African government took out loans to pay for the police and para-military
forces as well as for the military to wage war and introduce destabilisation
programmes against the frontline states, particularly against Angola and
Mozambique. These loans were organised by German and Swiss banks in particular,
as a new study has shown.
the new democratic South African government and people have to pay back the
debt, created for their former oppression, as have the devasted frontline
states. The campaign asks the European governments and banks concerned to
cancel these illegitimate debts and pay reparation for the damage they are
opening these dimensions of the question has important consequences for other
areas. Who installed and supported all the dictators starting from Brazil in
1964, who have opened up their countries for transnational banks and
corporations with the consequence of selling out their countries to
transnational capital? It was the USA with the consent of the European
governments. So the question of illegitimate debt and reparation has much
broader implications for the West.
working through our past would have to include the fact that we have repressed
the memory of 500 years of European imperial and colonial history of conquista
and violence over against the rest of the world.
the light of this history the question of debt has to be posed in a new way.
The Africans call it the social debt. This means that we have not only to talk
about the debt relief, but we have to talk about restitution for the incredible
losses Asia, Africa and Latin America have suffered through Europeans and the
global structures Europeans have produced. According to Exodus 22:24-26 the
creditor is called not only to forgive the debts but also to give back the
pledge. For Europe, therefore, there is an undeniable challenge to pay
restitution to the countries of the developing world.
This is also supported by the story of Zacchaeus, the wealthy man starting to
follow Jesus by paying back what he owes to the poor whom he has robbed to
acquire his wealth (cf. Luke 19: 1-10).
addition to the recognition of the past the
of working for alternatives to the global deregulated capitalist economy with
its mechanisms of debt and impoverishment and its ideology and idolisation of
the competitive market:
a new vision;
small scale alternatives at local/regional level;
alliances to push for the political regaining control of transnational capital;
resistance I have already given some examples boycotting banks.
new vision concerns the development of an economic paradigm integrating social,
ecological and democratic criteria.
alternatives are particularly possible in the areas of local money and LETS
schemes (Local Exchange and Trading Systems), alternative cooperative banking,
decentralised energy production and local food provision.
alliance building for political intervention aims at the social, ecological and
democratic re-regulation of the economy at all levels. The national political
institutions are no longer strong enough to cope with globally mobile capital.
Therefore we work to change policies in the European Union. Up to now the EU
has been governed by a neo-liberal majority of governments. Now we have a
Green-Socialist majority and perhaps a small chance to revitalise the social
traditions of Europe and unite with other regions of the world fighting the
neo-liberal structures and policies of the IMF, World Bank and WTO - in 1999
particularly the re-introduction of the Multilateral Agreement on Investments
(MAI) on the Agenda through the "Millenium Round". Together we can call for new
sustainable structures and institutions at global level, e. g. taxing
speculation, fighting tax flight and dumping, developing and enforcing minimum
social and ecological standards of employment, investment and trade. In all of
this we have to be aware of the fact that most of us are involved in different
mechanisms of money and, therefore, co-responsible.
churches could play a pivotal role in these endeavours of civil society. They
could set an example by confessing their guilt of complicity in the history of
European conquest and injustice. This also includes new efforts of economic
literacy programmes in our European churches seeing economic activity as a
matter of faith. Here too the WARC and the WCC make important recommendations.
is a new Kairos for all churches, i. e. a critical moment, but also a moment of
opportunity for their mission. Within many churches the crises cropping up all
over the world have created more awareness and willingness to address the
mechanisms of debt and impoverishment and the mechanisms of unjust wealth
creation. As the questions concerned are global in nature, they have to be
faced at the same time at all levels, but basically also on the global level.
Is there any other agency or organisation in the world as local and global as
the churches? Their responsibility and missionary possibilities are enormous.
They could make a real difference if they would wake up and follow the lines of
the biblical vision and the practical action against the mechanisms of debt and
F., 1992, Die Tora. Theologie und Sozialgeschichte des alttestamentlichen
R., 1996, Short Circuit. Strrengthening Local Economies for Security in an
Unstable World, The Lilliput Press/Dublin
Alternatives to Global Capitalism Drawn from Biblical History, Designed for
Political Action., Utrecht
U. u. a., 1997, Wahrheit, Versöhnung und Neuanfang auch im Westen - oder
nur im Süden und Osten?, Beilage zu "Junge Kirche", H. 4, Bremen
SUPPORT SERVICES, 1999, Jubilee 2000: A Fresh Start for Southern Africa, Harare
G., 1984, Privateigentum, Patriarchat, Geldwirtschaft, Suhrkamp TBW 455,
G./STEIGER, O., 1996, Eigentum, Zins und Geld, Reinbek b. Hamburg
SOUTH, June 1999, Manifesto: Beyond Debt and 2000, Cologne
EUROPA, 1998, European Kairos Document for a socially just, life-sustaining and
democratic Europe. A call to faith communities, trade unions and all movements
and individuals that are working for social, political and economic change, to
build coalitions to work for the liberation of society from the stranglehold of
the deregulated globalised economy and its competitive culture, May 1998, Sarum
R., 1992, Staat und Gesellschaft im vorexilischen Juda, Leiden
M./WELLMER, G/Egli, M., 1999, Apartheid-Caused Debt. The Role of German and
Swiss Finance, (Bread for the World), Stuttgart
CH., (1988), 1994
Binding the Strong Man: A Political Reading of Mark's Story of Jesus,
T., 1993, Autonomie & Egalität. Ökonomie, Politik, Ideologie in
der Schrift, Berlin
1999, Dossier on Globalisation and Debt, Geneva
Cf. G. Heinsohn, 1984 and G. Heinsohn/O. Steiger, 1996.
Cf. T. Veerkamp, 1993, pp. 65ff.
Cf. as example Neh. 5 and 10,32.
Cf. T. Veerkamp, 1993, 86ff. and F. Crüsemann, 1992, pp. 330ff.
Cf. T. Veerkamp, 1993, 243ff.
Cf. Ched Myers, 1994
pp. 297ff. and 310ff.
The European Kairos Document of 1998 has tried to unfold a comprehensive
European agenda in view of the issues taken up in the subsequent paragraphs.
The title of the European document is: European Kairos Document for a socially
just, life-sustaining and democratic Europe. A call to faith communities, trade
unions and all movements and individuals that are working for social, political
and economic change, to build coalitions to work for the liberation of society
from the stranglehold of the deregulated globalised economy and its competitive
culture, May 1998, Sarum College Press/Salisbury (see below).
Cf. for the following U. Duchrow, 1998
Cf. T. Veerkamp, 1993, pp. 28ff.
Cf. R. Douthwaite, 1996.
In: Reformed World, 47, 1997, p. 185.
WCC, 1998, Doc. RC-II, 1, III, 3, cf. WCC, Dossier on Globalisation and Debt,
This has also been powerfully stated by the Jubilee South Coalition in its
Manifesto for Cologne 1999.
Cf. Ecumenical Support Services (Zimbabwe), 1999.
M. Madörin/G. Wellmer, 1999.
Cf. the proposal Kairos Europa presented to the Second European Ecumenical
Assembly in 1997 to introduce commissions for truth, justice and reconciliation
at all levels in Europe, in: U. Duchrow, 1997, pp. 91ff.
Cf. R. Douthwaite, 1996.